International Development Law Organization

Land Rights

In many African countries, the majority of land is under customary tenure: the rights, rules and responsibilities to possess, occupy and use it are based on community customs. But customary-held land rarely enjoys adequate protection under national laws; any legal mechanisms to uphold land rights may be easily circumvented. With land-based investments expanding rapidly in Africa in recent years, scarce resources are coming under pressure. Conflicts erupt between competing land users. Communities find themselves dispossessed.

Strengthening the legal framework for customary land-rights holders is crucial for their legal recognition and protection. IDLO works to elevate the land rights of communities in Africa and empower customary rights holders to protect their land.

For more information, see IDLO's publication Protecting. Community Lands and Resources. Evidence from Liberia, Mozambique and Uganda.

Climate and Conflict in the Sahel: a Rule of Law Perspective

In fragile contexts, the immediate impacts of climate change on precipitation and temperatures risk to combine with political and social tensions exacerbating destructive competition over scarce natural resources.

This is tragically evident in Africa’s semi-arid Sahel region, where recurrent droughts, population growth and weak governance ​are increasing pressure on land and water


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